Friday, January 30, 2009
He quickly began to show his skills not only in the musical field, but as an engineer and inventor. In the 1700's he invented two keyboard instruments, the "spinnetone" and the "oval spinnet." His most notable musical invention was another keyboard instrument, the piano. Originally called the "Arpicembalo," the piano was first described in an inventory of the Medici's in the year 1700. As Bartolomeo aged, he was aided by Giovanni Ferrini who went on to continue Bartolomeo's work after his death in 1731.
Bartolomeo Cristofori: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CristoforiBildnis.jpg
Crisofori's Piano: http://www.ptg.org/images/museum/cristofori.jpg
Before he died he also designed a combustion fuel engine that was powered by gun powder, met Issac Newton, and wrote a book about life on other planets.
Information and picture- http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_huygens.htm
Picture of achromatic eyepiece- http://www.frostydrew.org/observatory/courses/scopes/huygens.gif
Thursday, January 29, 2009
In 1701 Tull invented the seed drill and horse drawn hoe. Tull's seed drill would replace the need to sow seeds by hand. The machine drilled small holes in the Earth in which to sow the seeds and then cover them up. At the time Tull found his invention to be a failure and waste of time due to the fact that many of his seeds would never take root. Little did he know that his first steps to applying science to agriculture would vastly help imrove the field of agriculture in the future.
For a picture of the diving suite : http://www.scubatoys.com/navy/images/1-4.jpg
Wednesday, January 28, 2009
Photo of Savery: http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/thurston/1878/pp31.gif
Photo of Steam Engine: http://www.mgsteam.btinternet.co.uk/engdev.htm Visible as move down page.
A picture of Alessandro Volta:
A picture of the voltaic pile:
Celsius became pretty famous due to his participation in this expedition and was able to build his own observatory in 1740. In those days, geographical measurements, meteorological observations and other things were included in the work of an astronomy professor.
For his meteorological observations, Celsius constructed the Celsius thermometer, with the boiling point at 0 and the freezing point at 100.
After making other minor contributions to the science world, Anders Celsius died of tuberculosis in April of 1744 at the age of 42. It was after his death, that the Celsius scale was reversed to its present form.
Anders Celsius Pic:
This assignment is due by Friday, February 6th, by midnight. Late assignments will be docked 5 points per hour they are late. Please post early and on time. Also, where applicable, provide a link to any website or information you use--do not post images directly to the blog.
Briefly discuss an inventor/engineer (not discussed in class) who lived in Europe between 1650 and 1800. Give a brief synopsis of their life and the invention/design/creation they are famous for. Provide a link to any images of 1) the inventor/engineer and 2) what they invented.
Do not copy anyone from the first assignment! Do not duplicate anyone already done for the assignment. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have not duplicated another individual's post.
Do not simply copy and paste anything from another website. This is supposed to be in your own words and should be written as paragraphs, not just bullet points or a list. The average length should be a full paragraph or two.
Monday, January 26, 2009
The Wheel-lock Firing Mechanism
Gunpowder was introduced to
The earliest firing mechanism for the arquebus was a matchlock, which is simply a slow burning rope lowered to ignite the ballistics’ charge. This system was susceptible to weather and not suitable for surprise attacks. The wheel lock was developed in
Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics (Second Edition)
Article produced by the Second Amendment Foundation
Figure 1 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HandBombardWesternEurope1390-1400.jpg
Figure 2 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ArquebusClipAndColor.jpg
References and Pictures:
Sir John Harington
Inventor of the
Sir John Harington was born in 1561 to an illegitimate daughter of King Henry VIII, providing him a life of privilege allowing him to be well educated. He was accepted to the court of Queen Elizabeth as one of her god-children, where he wrote poetry and translated literature. Later he was also accepted, though with some trouble, into the court of James I. Though Sir Herington was primarily concerned with literature, he is best known for inventing the first flushing toilet. He wrote about the invention, which he installed at Queen Elizabeth’s palace at
(International League of Antiquarian Booksellers)
Niccolo Fontana was the inventor of the gunner’s quadrant in 1545. This was a piece of equipment used for aiming cannons. It was basically a carpenters square with a quarter of a circle connecting the ends of the square. The pumb bob is a rope that was attached to the square and used to measure the angle of the cannon barrel when lined up with the circle.This allowed the cannon to be aimed at 45 degrees for the longest distance. Niccolo Fontana was also known as Tartaglia. He was born in 1499 or 1500 in
Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Modern Day Vernier Calipers
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was an architect born on October 1st, 1507 and died on July 7, 1513. He was an Italian Architect who is best known for the Villa Farnese and Church of the Gesu. He was born in Vignola and studied architecture in
He was a very influential architect in the Mannerist style. He published two books, 'Regole delle cinque ordini d'architettura' in 1563, and the 'Due regole della prospettiva pratica,' which was published posthumously. These two books would become great influences to other Mannerist architects mainly because they were written for amateur architects.
Church of the Gesu
Picture of Pascal's Calculator:
Sunday, January 25, 2009
Tuesday, January 20, 2009
Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464)
Concave lenses to correct myopia
The following link will lead to a picture of both Otto von Guericke and his invention of the air pump.
Monday, January 19, 2009
Although it is difficult to date the actual date of the invention of the harpsichord, the entire Ruckers family is accredited with much of the development of the harpsichord, as well as producing some of the most elegant harpsichords. in particular, Andreas Ruckers' harpsichords featured 2 rows of keys, a fourth of an octave apart, which allowed easier transposing for the baroque music of the time.The harpsichord is a stringed instrument much like the grand piano (although the piano is technically percussion). the only real difference between a harpsichord and a grand piano is that the harpsichord plucks its strings, where as a piano hits its strings. Almighty Wikipedia provided me with some very good photographic examples of how exactly a harpsichord plucks its strings, so if you're interested, check out the Wikipedia link (or just Google harpsichord, and click the first link). also, the Ruckers family appears to have some amazing artistic skills too, so check out the 2nd website for some awesome pictures of their harpsichords.
1)The orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus.
2)A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.
3)The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semi-major axes.
Kepler replaced Copernicus' circular heliocentric orbits by ellipses. He came to these conclusion not only through mathematical approaches but by mythical insights that he had in his life. Kepler died in Regensburg, after a short illness. He was buried in the local church but after the Thirty Years War, it was destroyed and nothing was left of the tomb.
Born April 22, 1571 Giovanni Branca, who was an Italian physicist, is credited with providing the first description as well as invention of a steam turbine engine. Branca published 77 woodcuts that depicted a steam turbine along with a description of how to turn a wheel by shooting jets of steam against the outer rim of a wheel. In 1629 Branca invented a stamping mill that used steam jets to rotate a turbine that operated the machine. He died January 24, 1645
Branca's Steam Turbine: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/BracaDampturbin.jpg
Another Jet Turbine: http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mvigeant/therm_1/je2/branca.gif
A micrometer is a device similar to a screw that measures certain astronomical distances. It's often used within telescopes to measure distances between stars based on angles. Today, micrometers are still a large part of the study of astronomy, as well as a device used for countless engineering projects and a variety of machines.
Mercator published his first masterpiece, a map of Europe, in 1554. Fifteen years later, he released his last and most notable work, a map of the world. Before Mercator, seafarers had a serious problem: there were not any dependable carts. The indications on their compasses never seemed to agree with the indications of the carts. Because of this issue, seafarers would constantly miss their destination by hundreds of kilometers. Mercator was able to solve this issue. In 1569, he projected the world onto a cylinder having the parallels and meridians intersect each other perpendicularly and stretching the distances on the parallels with the same factor as the distances on the meridians. He was able to draft a map on which a rhumb can be represented as a straight line. A rhumb is a curve which cuts every meridian under the same angle. Mercator made his carts only for navigation and they were worldwide for a long time. Mercator projection became the standard projection for navigational maps.
Although the shapes, surfaces, and the distances between countries were almost correct in Mercator’s projections, a globe was still considered to be the best representation of the earth. In 1541, Mercator made a globe of chips of wood, covered with linen and plaster. On top of this sphere, he stuck twelve pieces of paper which he colored himself.
When Mercator died at the age of 82, his grandchildren inherited his work but they sold it to a Dutch cartographer, Jodocus Hondius, who made a great deal of money with Mercator’s legacy.
Sunday, January 18, 2009
As close as could be found to the watch he developed
Example of a pomander
Friday, January 16, 2009
William Oughtred (1574-1660) is credited with inventing the slide rule circa the early 1600’s. Oughtred was an ordained Episcopal minister who self taught himself in the area of mathematics. He opened a school for young men interested in mathematics, and one of his students, Edmund Gunter, is credited with finding the logarithmic scale.
The slide rule was a device used in similar fashion to a modern day pocket calculator. Several mathematicians discovered that adding logarithms could be used to do multiplication around 1614. These numbers were placed on a number line relative to their value, thus creating the logarithmic scale. Measuring the distance between the numbers could be used to multiply or divide. William Oughtred came up with the concept of placing two logarithmic scales on sliding boards in order to easily add and subtract the multiplied logarithmic numbers from each other. This method reduced the amount of work required by multiplication of large numbers, by eliminating the task of looking up the corresponding logarithms for a number, and eliminated the need to measure the distance between numbers on the scale.
Slide rules were used and improved upon for nearly 300 years after their invention, even in aiding NASA’s landing on the moon.
Thursday, January 15, 2009
Hans sold his design to the Dutch government for a handsome price. It became known as the "Dutch perspective glass", and could only magnify things three times. Even though it seems like nothing compared to the telescopes that exist today Lippershey's invention lead to greater experimentations and better modifications to his original design. Lippershey's accomplishment was circulated throughout Europe through a diplomatic report. Many other scientists came into possession of the report and began working to improve the design, scientists such as Galileo Galilei. Due to his great invention that change the world and the science of astronomy forever, Lippershey has a crater on the moon and the small planet 31338 named after him.
Born in Herrenberg, Germany, Schickard went to the University of Tubingen which he earned both a bachelors and a masters degree. He became a Lutheran minister after studying theology and oriental languages at his alma mater. Aside from becoming a professor of Hebrew and Astronomy at the University of Tubingen, he also invented a machine for calculating astronomical date and one for Hebrew grammar. He was a skilled wood and cooper engraver, and his advancements in mapmaking produced far more accurate maps than those available in his time. He died in 1653 in Tubingen, Germany of the bubonic plague
William Lee was an English inventor who made the stocking frame knitting machine in 1589. Lee was born in Calverton, Nottinghamshire. He entered Christ's College in Cambridge in 1579 as a sizar (student of limited means) and graduated from St. John's College in 1582. His invention converted the common practice of knitting with two needles into a mechanical process using a frame. The knitting frame would produce a woven sheet of fabric that could later be sewn into various articles of clothing. 250 years after this invention, there was little variation of the basic design that Lee invented. Variations that occurred later in English history include: the ribbing device in 1748, a warp-knitting machine in 1775, and a circular knitting machine in the mid-1800’s. Variations are continuously made to provide variation in fabrics for fashion purposes.
Wednesday, January 14, 2009
Picture of Martin Behaim
Picture of Globe
Tuesday, January 13, 2009
Hans Lippershay, who grew up nearly next door to Janssen, is the other person attributed to being the possible inventor of the telescope, but it is debatable. He created a patent for the microscope in 1608, and was better known than Janssen, which is probably why he is noted as being the possible creator.
A picture of Zacharias Jansen:
A picture of “his” compound microscope:
Torricelli also studied the value of gravity, the quadrature of the cycloid and conics, the rectifications of the logarithmic spiral, the cause of wind, and the theory of projectiles and the motion of fluids. He discovered Torricelli’s Law, and the Torr, a unit of pressure, was named for him. He was also involved in building telescopes and simple microscopes and lenses. After Galileo’s death he became the grand-ducal mathematician and professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa. He died of typhoid fever on October 25, 1647 in Florence, Italy.
A drawing of the barometer: http://www.lake-link.com/images/fishinginfo/barometric_pressure.gif
A drawing of Evangelista Torricelli: http://z.about.com/d/inventors/1/G/r/W/Evangelista_Torricelli.jpg
Here is a picture of the Ajax, the predecessor to the modern flushing toilet: http://www.abertilleryanddistrictmuseum.org.uk/Images/toilet1.jpg
for a picture of Gutenberg.. http://portrait.kaar.at/Deutschsprachige%20Teil%201/images/johannes_gutenberg.jpg
for a picture of the printing press.. http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/history_knowledge/printpress.jpg
http://www.comitatinazionali.librari.beniculturali.it/upload/immagini/Leon%20Battista%20Alberti,%20ritratto.jpg - picture of Leone Alberti
http://plus.maths.org/issue34/features/ekert/alberti_disk.jpg - picture of Alberti Disk
Monday, January 12, 2009
Briefly discuss an inventor/engineer (not discussed in class) who lived in Europe between 1400 and 1650. Give a brief synopsis of their life and the invention/design/creation they are famous for. Provide a link to any images of 1) the inventor/engineer and 2) what they invented.
EACH INDIVIDUAL MUST BE UNIQUE! NO REPEATS!
Do not simply copy and paste anything from another website, especially not from Wikipedia. This is supposed to be in your own words and should be written as paragraphs, not just bullet points or a list. The average length should be a full paragraph or two. Copying and pasting directly from any website will result in an automatic failure of that week's assignment and continued violations may result in automatic failure of the course.
Throughout the semester, weekly or bi-weekly assignments will be posted here for you to complete as part of the course requirements. You will have until Monday midnight before the beginning of the next week to complete the assignment (or the date and time included in the assignment). All new assignments will be posted on Tuesday morning (or given out in class first). Please do not fall behind in your assignments.
When posting any images, pleasing make sure you link the url directly in your post. Do not post the image directly to the blog! Try not to link, copy or use material that specifically says you may not use it without the owner's permission. If you have any questions, ask me before you post.
Also, if you are having problems seeing your post show up, please make sure you republish the entire blog. If you are still having problems seeing your post show up, sometimes it is best to log out of the blog, then log back in. The post usually shows up at that point. If it doesn't, send me an email.
If you already have a blogger ID, please email that name and your email so that I can send you an invite to the blog. Email me at email@example.com. I will go over the blogger instructions in the first class.
All students must be registered for the blog prior to the start of class on Thursday, January 22nd.